Tibet spans the world’s largest and, with average heights of over 4,000m, also the world’s highest plateau. The Tibetan Plateau also spans most Qinghai, western Sichuan provice, northern Yunnan, and lastly southwestern Gansu. Consequently, Tibet is often referred to as the “Roof of the World”. Parts of the region (northwestern region) are so remote they remain uninhabited to this day.
The Tibetan plateau is bounded by two mighty ranges, where Himalayan range consist of the world highest peak Mt. Everest situates from south to west and Thanggula ranges in the north, alpine terrain conditions severe, dry and continental climate in Tibet, with strong winds, low humidity, a rarefied atmosphere and a huge fluctuation in annual and summer daytime temperature. The Tibetan plateau is exposed to unshielded cold air from the north; while the southern tropical and equatorial air masses barely penetrate the Himalayan barrier into Central Asia. The strong heating of the earth’s surface during the summer months and the freezing in winter produces clear seasonal variations in atmospheric circulation and enhances the role of local centers of atmospheric activity, so the climate and weather in Tibet is very changeable.

Get in:
Tourism to Tibet is strictly controlled by the Chinese government, and restrictions were further ratcheted up after the riots and before the 2008 Olympics. As of 2009, the previous “backpacker” tours, which included the permit and a couple of nights stay in Lhasa is no longer an option and all travellers must stay with an organised trip the entire time they are in Tibet. That means you will not be allowed to travel on an independent basis. No Mainland China or Foreign Tour Guides are allowed in Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR), only Tibetan Official Tour Guides allowed in TAR.

All paperwork (except for the application of the Chinese visa) must be organized through an official China-Tibet Tour Agency. Checkpoints along major roads outside Lhasa are everywhere and foreign tourists are requested to show and register their passports from time to time, (17 checkpoints). Travellers in Tibet have reported being stopped or questioned by the Chinese police, which are normally either courteous or simply uninterested in a traveller’s whereabouts or plans in the rest of the country.

All foreign visitors to Tibet need one to eight permits. The basic one is the Tibet Tourism Bureau (TTB) permit, which can be issued to you by travel agencies that is registered at Tibet Tourism Bureau in Lhasa. The official price of the permit is zero, but a tour agency usually charges around ¥2500 RMB or more for the permit, as they will be responsible for the behaviour of the tourists during their visit. For every “mistake” the tourist does, the tour agency may be asked to pay a penalty.

From the middle of 2013, the Tibet Tourism Bureau had implemented a new permit policy that all the permit should be applied minimal 200 days in advance, so currently the last minute planning is not workable. Moreover, the permit regulation changes timely without any prior notice, so it is very important to check the latest Tibet travel permit situation to choose a right time to make your Tibetan journeys.

The Tibet travel permit situation changes all the time based on the political situation in Tibet, so there are always lots of rumours online about the permit situation, but you can find the Latest Tibet travel permit situation from Tibetan Tourism Bureau in Lhasa.

Some parts of Tibet also require an Aliens’ Travel Permit (ATP), which is issued by the Public Security Bureau (PSB) in major Tibetan cities like Lhasa, Xigatse and Ali. The list of regions that require ATPs changes constantly, so inquire locally. Lhasa’s PSB has a poor reputation, while Xigatse and Ali are said to issue permits without any unnecessary difficulties. If your papers are in order, the permit can be issued in several hours for ¥1.000

Finally, some remote areas also require a ‘military permit or “restricted area permit”. These are only available in Lhasa, where processing takes several days, and are only granted for an appropriate reason.

If you enter Tibet without your Tibetan Official Tour Guide, a photocopy of the permit is required, on train station they usually want to leave one copy, on airport just have a look. Officially you cannot buy the train ticket or air ticket by yourself, but you will need to show the permit once you board the train or flight. This regulation is strictly enforced and the permit is frequently checked in Lhasa or outside Lhasa. Watch out for the scam in mainland China or travel agency in the internet, as they offer you the easiest and cheapest way to acquire the Tibetan Permit.

From summer 2014 most of Travel Agencies ask you to pay “deposit” USD1500-2000/person. This deposit is used to manage your applications, train tickets. This is one of new rules that come from Chinese government.

Every year during ‘March and October is almost impossible to apply or obtain permit, TAR is definitely closed to foreigners for one month (sometimes also late February and randomly in October). Offices start to issue permits for official tours organized on April.

By Overland
There are four overland routes to Lhasa from the four cardinal directions. Two will not be discussed here:
From the South, from India, via Nepal
From the north-west, from Kashgar in Xinjiang
For more on those, and on the routes below, see the Tibet article and the Tibetan journeys itinerary.

What we will describe here are routes from central China:
By rail, using the new Qinghai-Tibet railway, the world’s highest railway line, with oxygen pump into the cabin
By road from the north, starting at Golmud, Qinghai
By road from the east, from Kunming, Yunnan or from Chengdu, Sichuan (The Tibet Tea Road) — see more out-of-the-way places
Overland to Zhongdian, then flies to Lhasa — see a lot without blowing the budget

By land or air from Kathmandu (Nepal)
For any route, you need travel permits for each area you visit. The Chinese government restricts access to Tibet; in theory, you can only get a permit as part of an organized tour group. In practice, some tour operators will take your money, get you the permit, and be happy if you go off on your own. Also, some local police stations will happily issue permits for their area, sometimes cheaper than the tour operators. For details, see the Tibet article. Some travelers have gone without the permits, some have gotten away with it, but this no longer possible or advised. If you are caught you will be detained, fined and sent back at your own expense. Still you can go there as a single traveller, but only “organized”.
For any route, you need to consider the risks of altitude sickness. Lhasa is at 3660 meters (12,000 feet). Most of the passes and some inhabited plateau areas are over 5000 meters (16,500 feet)

By plane
Currently (2015) there is only one international flight to Lhasa (Tibet) which is from Kathamandu (Nepal) and more flights from different cities in mainland China. There are only three flights from Kathmandu to Lhasa in a week which is operated by the Air China. There are more flights from mainland China to Lhasa (CHENGDU), but all foreign travelers need the Tibet travel permit (TTP) to board the flight to Lhasa and Official Tibetan Tour Guide. Foreign travelers can organize flight to Lhasa or other cities in TAR only with help of official registered travel agencies. TA will sell you a tour (can make detailed plan by yourself) including booking flights and hotels. Foreigners are not allowed to have original document of TTP, only your tour guide will have it. The Price of tickets ranging from 350US-500US (One Way)

From Lhasa (Konggar) airport to Lhasa downtown it is about 55km by highway.

You can fly to Lhasa and also to Nyingchi but flying in from a much lower altitude city puts you at high risk (90%)of altitude sickness because of the quick transition, unlike boarding a train If you are in Sichuan or nearby (and aren’t satisfied visiting the many ethnically Tibetan areas to the east of the Tibetan Autonomous Region) flying from Chengdu or Chongqing is the easiest option.

A flight from Chengdu or Chongqing to Lhasa plus all the necessary paperwork will cost around ¥2,000 and can be arranged through most large hostels or travel agents.

An alternate route is to follow the Yunnan tourist trail to Zhongdian and fly from there to Lhasa. If you spend a few days each in Kunming (2,000m), Dali (1,800m), Lijiang and Zhongdian (3,200m) to acclimatise, you should be able to fly to Lhasa (3,650m) with little risk.

If enter Tibet by flight from Mainland China, then you need the original Tibet travel permit in your hand to board the flight, when you go through the security check point at the airport, they will check your permit and passports, so remember to ask your travel agent to send your travel permit to your hotel in Mainland China before you arrive, also make sure that the names and passport number on the permit is correct as if there is a mistake, then the airport security won’t let you board the flight and ask you to send the permit back to Lhasa and correct.

By train

The Qinghai-Tibet (Qingzang) Railway, also China Tibet Train railway, from Golmud to Lhasa started operating in July 2006. The journey all the way from Beijing takes just under 48 hours, costing ¥389 in the cheapest hard seat class and ¥1262 for a soft sleeper. Direct trains to Lhasa originate in Beijing, Xining, Lanzhou, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chongqing and Chengdu. For a mid-range sleeper from Chengdu with 6 bunks in each room, they are ¥692. Be warned that these trains are not for the faint-hearted and the less adventurous type: they do not have Western-styled toilets and bunks are relatively cramped although both are clean. The main advantage for this mode of transportation is the fact that you could slowly adapt to high altitude conditions instead of a sudden shift if you were to take a plane, reducing the high altitude sickness by 80%

Tangula runs roughly weekly luxury trains (Apr-Dec only) from Beijing to Lhasa and back. The 4-day journey costs USD55,500 (twin sharing), including all meals, drinks and excursions. However, as of January 2010, the Tangula still has no official launch date and are not accepting reservations until Summer 2011, due to economic hardships.

With the completion of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway that is known as the highest railway on earth and the first railway to Tibet, Tibet’s history without a railway was finally ended. At present, there are several trains to and out of Tibet each day. The train has become the major way to get to Tibet for travellers. Since the railway was built in an area with an altitude over 4,000m, low oxygen content and harsh climate, the trains to Tibet were tailor-made. In order to make passengers travel comfortably onboard, the train is equipped with air-conditioning, oxygen supply system and anti-radiation sightseeing windows.

Oxygen Supply System
The oxygen supply system is one of the most significant designs. It ensures passengers’ comfort and safety when the train arrives in the area over 4,000 meters above sea level, which easily causes high altitude sickness. Each train is provided with two oxygen-supply systems. Both of the oxygen supply systems are working when the trains are running in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Zone. One is used for increasing the oxygen level in the train, by temperature and air pressure controlling systems once the train enters into the plateau zone from Golmud to Lhasa. When the oxygen supply systems are working, no smoking is allowed in all the cars. The other is directly used by passengers through an independent port. There are oxygen supply tubes and masks in each cabin for emergencies. Private oxygen masks are provided to every passenger, whatever ticket they have.

As the air on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is quite thin, the solar radiation is very strong. In order to help passengers enjoy the scenery along the railway at most, every train is installed with sealed sightseeing windows that are covered by anti-ultraviolet film so as to protect passengers from the wind, sand and ultraviolet radiation. All the windows are provided with double-layered vacuum glass. The outer layer is covered by anti-ultraviolet film. Apart from that, there are two layers of curtain in the cars for preventing ultraviolet radiation.

Different train carriages

In order to meet different demands from different passengers taking Tibet train, the carriages of the train to Tibet are classified into three classes, soft sleeper, hard sleeper and hard seat.
(1) The first class - Soft Sleeper
Of course, soft sleeper is the first-class carriage, and also the most comfortable and expensive. At first, soft sleeper class gives you access to a separate waiting area and priority boarding. There are twelve compartments with private doors in a carriage; four berths in each compartment, two upper and two lower, with a small table next to the window, between the two lower bunks. There is enough private room in the soft sleeper compartments.

(2) The second class – Hard Sleeper
Hard Sleeper is the second class car. Do not be misled by the name. The hard sleeper berth is not a hard-board like its name. It is still comfortable and soft but less spacious and private. There are eighteen compartments without doors in a carriage; six berths per compartment forming 2 triple bunk beds, two upper, two middle and two lower.

(3) The third class - Hard Seat
Hard seat on the train is also not hard chair like its name. It is soft and comfortable for a short journey. There are usually 4 hard-seat cars in each train from or to Tibet, which can totally contend 392 people. Different as a standard hard-seats car, which totally content 108 seats, one hard-seating car just offers 98 seats in a Tibet train. Since travel to Tibet by train is quite a long journey, it is not recommended for you to take hard seat to Tibet.

Services on Tibet train

(1) Attendants
All the attendants on Tibet train take training sessions before working on the train: simple Tibetan language and ethnic traditions, crash courses in English. Each train has a doctor attending the medical emergencies of the passengers suffering from altitude sickness.

(2) Meals
The dining car offers fast combination meals throughout most of the day for sale, although choices are quite limited. For example, passengers can purchase a western breakfast for approx $4 consisting of eggs, bread, butter, jam, milk, tea. Traditional Chinese or Tibetan meals are always available, with rice, noodles and meat-vegetable combinations. Beer, water, soft drinks are also available for sale in the dining car.

(3) Drinks and Snacks
There is a dispenser in the sink area which provides hot water 24 hours a day so you can make your own tea, coffee, hot chocolate or instant noodles which you can purchase easily in any market. Each compartment has a thermos so that you can bring the hot water back to your room. You will need to bring your own mug and utensils as well. You may want to bring your own bottled water for drinking, as it will be less expensive than buying bottles on the train. We recommend you buy snacks in a market or supermarket, ahead of time as the dining room meals may not suit your taste.

The schedule of the trains to Tibet

Currently, seven cities in mainland China offer direct trains to Lhasa, including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu, Chongqing, Xining and Lanzhou. But it does not indicate that one can board a train to Tibet only in these cities. Trains to Tibet pass through many important cities in China, like Nanjing, Zhengzhou, Xian, Changsha and Taiyuan. Whichever city you board, all trains pass through the Qinghai-Tibet Railway, from Xining to Lhasa.
Train Code Dep. Time Arr. Time Distance Duration Frequency
1. Beijing-LhasaTrain (T27) 20:00 15:40 (the 3rd day) 3761km43hr.40min.Every Day
2. Shanghai – Lhasa Train (T164/T165) 19:36 20:15 (the 3rd day)4373km48hr.39min.Every Day
3. Chengdu – Lhasa Train (T22/T23) 20:55 16:35 (the 3rd day)3360km43hr.40min. Every Two Days
4. Chongqing – Lhasa Train (T222/T223) 19:37 16:35 (the 3rd day)3641km44hr.58min.Every Two Days
5. Guangzhou- Lhasa Train (T264/T265) 12:19 19:20 (the 3rd day)4980km51hr.1min.Every Two Days
6. Lanzhou -Lhasa Train (K917) 12:05 14:35 (the 2nd day)2188km26hr.30min.Every Two Days
7. Xining -Lhasa Train (K9811) 22:00 21:40 (the 2nd day)1960km23hr.40min. Every Day
8. Xining -Lhasa Train (K9801) 15:05 14:35 (the 2nd day)1960km23hr.30min. Every Two Days
9. All the Chinese train tickets start to sell 20 days before the train departure date, and as of 2014, the
note:-Chinese Railway Administration official website is available only in Chinese.

By road

In China, do not disobey the country’s laws. Your ‘foreign’ passport is no immunity for violation or circumvention of the rules.

There are four roads into Tibet, roughly corresponding to the cardinal directions:
(If you are caught by the authorities you will either be sent back (at your expense), have your visa cancelled or sent home or in extreme cases banned from ever re-entering China. There are even reports of foreigners being jailed on a temporary basis for breaking travel bans). Keep this in mind!

The road from Golmud (Geermu) is the easiest legal land route at present. The landscape is beautiful but difficult to appreciate after the long rough ride.

There is no legal way to travel this road (except as part of an expensive organized tour; see Overland to Tibet) and the security is tighter than from the north. Travelers do get through this way, but for people who are obviously not northeast Asians it’s difficult.

The road is totally unpaved for over a thousand kilometers with villages and water few and far between. The main advantages of this way is that it passes by Mount Kailash and through a beautiful, very remote region inhabited by nomads. There are many interesting things for the tourist to see on the way and it is worth considering travelling this way instead of via Mount Kailash.

From Nepal the international border makes any sort of breaking of the rules impossible, so the only option is to book a tour with a travel agent in Kathmandu. In addition, as of 2015, you need a group visa for China itself to cross the border into Tibet. As entering from Nepal requires the Chinese Visa, you have first to get the permits, then on arrival in Nepal to process the China Visa through the travel agent handling your tour. The drive from Kathmandu to Lhasa is spectacular, you should take five days including this one day acclimatization in Zhangmu or Nyalam. More days are recommended if you want to include a visit to the Everest Base Camp area.
Get around

Central Tibet has a good public bus network, although foreigners are not allowed to use an intercity bus currently.

Jeep tours are a popular way of getting around Tibet, while not cheap, the tour operator will sort out all the necessary paperwork, and they offer you a reasonable chance of sticking to a schedule.
Your driver will likely be an indigenous Tibetan who can speak Chinese. He’ll get to eat and sleep for free wherever you go (he’ll often be treated like a king), and he’ll often need to stop for a smoke or a pee by certain vendors on the road. ¥4500 will get a jeep that can seat 4 people and luggage comfortably for 4 or 5 days.

Be very precise with your itinerary and very careful with payment. Every stop, monastery and lake you wish to visit, etc should be written on the itinerary. Payment should never be made in advance. Many foreigners, especially pro-Tibetan ones, are so trusting of Tibetan drivers that they hand over their money in advance but never get to see their drivers again. These drivers operate in rings and will approach their targets in hostels and speak against the Chinese government to gain support and sympathy from tourists who then lower their guard, and have their trip ruined. Some such stranded tourists, already identified as easy targets, will then be approached by a second Tibetan driver in the ring, and the same scam happens one more time.

Hitch hike
Since 2008 it is more and more complicated to hitchhike in TAR. Foreign travelers without TTP, own tour guide and private car with driver are not allowed to leave city of Lhasa. It is possible to make it, but you will have problems at the first check point about 20km out of Lhasa in every direction. Police will probably send you back to city and travel agency who organized your tour to Lhasa will pay very high fines.
However, hitch hiking is still possible in other Tibetan areas as Kham and Amdo, nowadays found in provinces Qinghai, Gansu, Sichuan and Yunnan. These parts of Tibet are worth to visit.

There are a surprising number of tourists travelling Tibet by bicycle, both foreigners and Chinese. The roads vary from rough dirt tracks to good quality paved roads. There are restaurants, truck stops and shops scattered around often enough so that you don’t need to carry more than a day’s worth of food (with the important exception of the west of the country). The roads are often well graded, being built for overloaded trucks. 26 inch wheels would be preferable as 700cm (ISO 622) are almost unknown in China. Good mountain bikes are available in large cities of China or in Lhasa. Golmud is not a good place to get a bicycle (assuming you want it to get you past the check point 30km outside of town). Cyclists have reported that distances cited in the Lonely Planet guidebooks can be quite inaccurate so be very well-prepared.

Good road maps of Tibet are common in China, but only in Chinese. These are of limited use even for people literate in Chinese as the Chinese names are very different from the ones used by the Tibetans. They are useful for reading road signs, even for people with low literacy in Chinese.

The Star publications map is probably the best. Amnye Machen Institute[4] publishes an excellent map of similar scale and detail but with the Tibetan names, with a version written in Latin script and one in the Tibetan. It makes a useful companion. Tibetmap.com has a free downloadable set of maps covering much of Tibet with detail almost good enough to use for independent trekking.

If you understand the Cyrillic alphabet, the Soviet military produced good topographic maps in a range of scales from 1:2,500,000 down to 1:10,000. Coverage was virtually world-wide, although many areas were not mapped at the more detailed scales. The maps originally were classified, but were released to the larger world following the breakup of the USSR in 1991. These maps can be dated, particularly where infrastructure has been actively developed since 1991 or there have been major political changes, but representation of topography remains valid.

1. The Potala Palace, the home of successive Dalai Lamas is in Lhasa
2. The Jokhang Temple in Lhasa was built in 647 AD by Songtsen Gampo and is one of the holiest sites in Tibet.
3. The Barkhor Street in Lhasa is a street of traditional Tibetan buildings that encompasses the Jokhang Temple.
4. The ‘Summer Palace of the Dalai Lama is located in Lhasa, about 1km south of the Potala.
5. Samye Monastery – constructed in 779AD, Samye was the first Buddhist Monastery established in Tibet, and is located near Dranang, Shannan Prefecture, 150 km south-east of Lhasa.
6. Namtso lake -it is highest salt water lake in the world with altitude of 4,700m, it is about 250km north-west of Lhasa and offers great plateau beauty of the lake and amazing snow capped Thangula range in the north, summer time, nomads family camps can be seen along the route.
7. Tashilhunpo Monastery, the traditional seat of the Panchen Lamas. It was constructed in 1447 and is located in Xigatse
8. The Rongbuk Monastery, one of the highest monasteries in the world, from which the view of the Mt. Everest is just amazing.
9. Itineraries

Much of Lhasa has been replaced by post-1950 Chinese developments with only a small quarter dating from pre-invasion times. This part is now under renovation to attract tourists. It is still worth to take a stroll through the old part of Lhasa and buy goods from Tibetan vendors, who sometimes come from remote provinces of Tibet. Watch the impressive bargaining for Shish stones but refrain from buying turquoise or coral items as most of them are synthetic or dyed. Nevertheless Tibetan vendors have a huge range of beautiful Tibetan articles and it pays out to buy directly from them instead of spending money in shopping malls which started to appear everywhere in the centre of Lhasa.

There are some small cafes and bars run by young Chinese or Tibetan people which are very good hangouts and a fantastic meeting place for the few expats who live in Lhasa. They provide great information about Tibet.

A must are the small Tibetan restaurants who serve authentic Tibetan food. If you have never tried momos or gyantok, a definite must together with a cup of salted Tibetan butter tea.

Tibetan people in general are wonderful and friendly people who always have a warm smile. Some speak a bit of English and are happy to have a chat with you.

For an authentic, fulfilling visit to Tibet, you must have a native Tibetan guide. Many of the Chinese guides are relocated from other areas of China and don’t have a real understanding of the people or culture of Tibet that make the country so amazing.

Since visiting Tibet requires being accompanied by a licensed tour company, the following is a list of some Tibetan owned and operated tour guides:

1. Tibet Ctrip Travel Service is a long standing professional Tibet travel agency
2. Tibet Niwei International Travel Service is a registered Tibet travel agency in Lhasa since 1999
3. Tibet Shambhala Adventure Co. Ltd
4. Tibet Highland Tours, well connected, custom trips.
5. Tibet Shaman Tours, former Buddhist monk turned tour guide.
6. Tibet Kyunglung Travel
7. Xiangyun Travel Service Co.Ltd.
8. Spinn Cafe, a very informative FAQ about travel regulation in Tibet.
9. Tibet Roof Top of the World International Travel Service.
10. i-Tibet-travel, They offer private and group custom tours.

Clockwise from top: tingmo steamed bread, thenthuk noodle soup, momos in soup and vegetable gravy, with condiments in center
The traditional Tibetan diet is largely limited to barley, meat (mutton or yak) and dairy products, with very few spices or vegetables, although brutally hot chili sauce is often served on the side. Even good Tibetan food is very monotonous with most Tibetan restaurants serving nothing other than thukpa (noodle soup) and tea. By comparison, Chinese restaurants in villages often put out some excellent food.
All Tibetan restaurants in Lhasa featured in guidebooks and frequented by non-Chinese tourists are westernized ones serving a few Tibetan dishes along with pizzas, spaghetti, pancakes, etc.
A selection of popular Tibetan fare:
1. Momos – dumplings filled with meat or vegetables, steamed or fried
2. Tingmo – bland, nearly tasteless steamed bread
3. Thukpa – a hearty noodle soup with veggies or meat
4. Thenthuk – thukpa with handmade noodles
5. Yak butter tea – salty tea churned with butter, a Tibetan staple and a rather acquired taste for most Westerners
While traveling be prepared for the bus to depart late or break down. Carry a snack on short trips and enough food for a few days or a week or more for longer journeys, such as to Mount Kailash. Instant noodles are convenient even if you don’t have a camp stove. They can be eaten cold or softened with boiled water. Tsampa (roasted barley flour) is an ideal travel food because it’s already cooked. Eat it mixed with tea, butter and salt, or as a high energy snack by mixing it with water, milk powder and sugar.

Tea houses are an important social venue in Tibet, and offer a chance to sit down and relax. The tea houses in the larger town and cities offer sweet tea, or salted; in the villages you may only have the option of salt tea. The line between a tea house and a restaurant is blurred and many also offer thukpa.

Tibetan butter tea is a must try, though it may not be a pleasant experience for all — even the Dalai Lama famously said that he’s not a fan of the stuff! It is a salty mixture of black tea and Tibetan butter. Traditionally it is churned by hand with a thick rod in a long upright wooden container. However, when electricity came to the city in recent years, modernized Tibetans turn to use electric mixers to make their butter tea. The Tibetan butter is not rancid as commonly described, but has a cheesy taste and smell to it, close to blue cheese or Roquefort. Think of it as a cheese broth rather, that you will appreciate particularly after a long hike in cold weather.

An alternative to Tibetan butter tea is sweet tea which is more familiar to western palates. Sweet tea drinking was introduced only recently by merchants returning from India, first among well-off Tibetans, since sugar was a luxury on the Plateau, then when sugar became more available among the general public. Unlike Indians, Tibetan do not use spices (clove, cinnamon, cardamon) to flavor their tea.

Chang, or Tibetan beer made of barley, has a lighter flavor than a western-type, bottled beer, since they do not use bitter hops. Often home-brewed and with as many taste and strength variants as industrial beers.

The following Text was entered by someone but is completely false: “Beware of chang: the yeast is still alive in it, and will carry on fermenting and producing alcohol in the warm temperatures of your stomach! Usually no germ risk since yeast prevents bacteria proliferation.”

The truth is all unfiltered/unpasteurized beers will have some live yeast in them – most of the time settling at the bottom of the bottle. Brewers yeast cannot survive at temperatures and acid levels associated with human stomachs. Lastly the amount of yeast present in any one bottle of beer would produce negligible amounts of alcohol even if it could ferment your stomach’s sugar contents.

Stay safe
Plan your route to manage altitude sickness; the main thing is to give your body enough time to acclimatize before going higher. Plan your route with altitude sickness prevention in mind, by taking at least two days to reach 9000 ft/2700 m, not increasing your sleeping elevation more than 1500 ft/500 m per night, and spending an extra night at the same elevation every 3000 ft/1000 m. Be prepared to adjust your plans, descend or spend a few extra days acclimatizing if it proves necessary. you are very high up, the sun is going to be very strong. Bring and use sunscreen. Is recommended to those who just arrived at the plateau region: to not walk fast or run, to not do manual labour, don’t overeat in order to reduce the burden on the digestive organs, don’t drink and smoke, but eat vegetables and fruits rich in vitamins, stay warm, don’t bath to avoid cold and exhaustion. You can also take some drugs to mitigate altitude sickness, and butter is also good to mitigate altitude sickness.

When traveling in the countryside be prepared for the vehicle to break down and for bad weather. Carry a snack and some warm clothes. Water and fluids are essential.

Beware of the dogs! In the cities there are numerous stray dogs about and in the country side the villagers and nomads keep large guard dogs for security, (usually chained up). A modest level of caution is enough to prevent you from being bitten, as the strays usually run in packs and if you don’t get too close you should be okay. If guard dogs are unchained, keep them at bay by staying away from the house or tent they are protecting at all costs as their barking will indicate they have picked you up on their radar and pray they don’t come running after you. If they do, pick up (or pretend to pick up) some stones and be prepared to be attacked at the ankle. Sometimes kicking or lunging at the dogs before they attack may scare them off. Some other ways to protect yourself is by wearing boots and thick pants. Much is made of the viciousness of the Tibetan dogs, but few travelers have problems with them. See also aggressive dogs.

Steer clear of political unrest. The last major eruption of violence was in Lhasa in 2008 when rampaging mobs of Tibetans murdered, looted, and committed arson against Han and Hui civilians. Foreign tourists were not targeted in the violence.

Travellers to Tibet usually find Tibetans to be friendly. It is appreciated when you try and use the local Tibetan dialect when communicating with Tibetans. The further from Lhasa you travel, the more often Tibetan is used.
Avoid placing any Tibetan at risk by discussing political matters or associating with other pro-Tibetan anti-Chinese foreigners / guides / agencies – this includes anything about the Dalai Lama and the Tibetan Government-in-Exile. These topics are quite sensitive especially following the recent pro-independence demonstrations in Tibet, which cost more than two-hundred lives.
Religion is extremely important to the majority of Tibetans, and travellers should endeavour to respect their customs and beliefs. Always walk around Tibetan Buddhist religious sites or monastery in a clockwise direction, and when in a monastery do not wear a hat, smoke or touch frescoes. In addition, refrain from climbing onto statues, mani stones or other sacred objects.
Don’t photograph people without permission, and be aware that some locations prohibit photography without a fee. Sky burial sites are obviously off-limits.
Tibetan Buddhism and its impact of Tibetan culture is a major draw for tourists. Be aware that funds used to pay entry fees at major religious sites will probably go into the coffers of the local Communist Party and its Chinese members. Funds donated directly to individual monks and nuns and left on altars will remain and be used to maintain and support the local religious infrastructure. Appreciate the work of the monasteries and those within and help support these great institutions with non-monetary donations and by attending the festivals and just spending a little time getting to know the monastic community.
Supporting the Tibetan economy by purchasing from Tibetans is a great way to help. Pay a fair price while bargaining. Beware that some vendors may try to swindle tourists by selling at very high prices.
Try to eat more genuine Tibetan dishes. On the edge of the Plateau this becomes more difficult.
Antiques, family or religious items should not be purchased as this destroys the culture.
Help protect Tibet for future generations by not purchasing products made from wild animals. Many items are made from endangered species. Remember to leave only footprints and take lots of photographs while visiting Tibet. Take the initiative and pack out trash and recyclables you see around while travelling outside of urban Tibet. The ecosystem in the Himalayas is very fragile due to the weather being so cold, so be careful of where you hike and try to keep erosion down.
Help to keep Tibetan culture alive. It is very important to use Tibetan resources such as hotels, restaurants, guides and souvenir stalls, as Tibetan culture is gradually being eroded. It is also important to benefit financially the Tibetans, who are rapidly becoming a disadvantaged minority in their own territory. When visiting temples, monasteries or shrines you may wish to leave a donation, which will help their upkeep. It is best to leave it on the altar or give it directly to a monk or nun. This will ensure it stays in the temple. You may also wish to give a small donation to pilgrims from rural Tibet.